This syllabus forms the basis for the International Software Testing Qualification at the Foundation Level.
INTRODUCTION TO THIS SYLLABUS    8
1. FUNDAMENTALS OF TESTING (K2)    10
1 .1    Why is testing necessary (K2)    11
1.1.1 Software systems context (K1)    11
1.1.2 Causes of software defects (K2)    11
1.1.3 Role of testing in software development, maintenance and operations (K2)    11
1.1.4 Testing and quality (K2)    11
1 .2 What is testing (K2)    13
1 .3 General testing principles (K2)    14
1 .4 FUNDAMENTAL TEST PROCESS (K1)    15
1.4.1 Test planning and control (K1)    15
1.4.2 Test analysis and design (K1)    15
1.4.3 Test implementation and execution (K1)    16
1.4.4 Evaluating exit criteria and reporting (K1)    16
1.4.5 Test closure activities (K1)    16
1.5  The psychology of testing (K2)    17
2. TESTING THROUGHOUT THE SOFTWARE LIFE CYCLE (K2)    19
2.1 Software development models (K2)    20
2.1.1 V-model (K2)    20
2.1.2 Iterative development models (K2)    20
2.1.3 Testing within a life cycle model (K2)    20
2.2 Test levels (K2)    22
2.2.1 Component testing (K2)    22
2.2.2 Integration testing (K2)    22
2.2.3 System testing (K2)    23
2.2.4 Acceptance testing (K2)    23
2.3 Test types: the targets of testing (K2)    25
2.3.1 Testing of function (functional testing) (K2)    25
2.3.2 Testing of software product characteristics (non-functional testing) (K2)    25
2.3.3 Testing of software structure/architecture (structural testing) (K2)    25
2.3.4 Testing related to changes (confirmation and regression testing) (K2)    26
2.4 Maintenance testing (K2)    27
3.    STATIC TECHNIQUES(K2)    28
3.1 Reviews and the test process (K2)    29
3.2 Review process (K2)    30
3.2.1 Phases of a formal review (K1)    30
3.2.2 Roles and responsibilities (K1)    30
3.2.3 Types of review (K2)    30
3.2.4 Success factors for reviews (K2)    31
3.3 Static analysis by tools (K2)    33
4. TEST DESIGN TECHNIQUES (K3)    34
4.1    Identifying test conditions and designing test cases (K3)    35
4.2 Categories of test design techniques (K2)    36
4.3 Specification-based or black-box techniques (K3)    37
4.3.1    Equivalence partitioning (K3)    37
4.3.2    Boundary value analysis (K3)    37
4.3.3    Decision table testing (K3)    37
4.3.4    State transition testing (K3)    37
4.3.5 Use case testing (K2)    38
4.4 Structure-based or white-box techniques (K3)    39
4.5 Experience-based techniques (K2)    40
4.6 Choosing test techniques (K2)    41
5. TEST MANAGEMENT (K3)    42
5.1    Test organization (K2)    44
5.1.1 Test organization and independence (K2)    44
5.1.2 Tasks of the test leader and tester (K1)    44
5.2 Test planning and estimation (K2)    46
5.2.1 Test planning (K2)    46
5.2.2 Test planning activities (K2)    46
5.2.3 Exit criteria (K2)    46
5.2.4 Test estimation (K2)    46
5.2.5 Test approaches (test strategies) (K2)    47
5.3 Test progress monitoring and control (K2)    49
5.3.1 Test progress monitoring (K1)    49
5.3.2 Test Reporting (K2)    49
5.3.3 Test control (K2)    49
5.4 Configuration management (K2)    51
5.5 Risk and testing (K2)    52
5.5.1 Project risks (K1, K2)    52
5.5.2 Product Risks (K2)    52
5.6 Incident management (K3)    54
6. TOOL SUPPORT FOR TESTING (K2)    56
6.1    Types of test tool(K2)    57
6.1.1 Test tool classification (K2)    57
6.1.2 Tool support for management of testing and tests (K1)    57
6.1.3 Tool support for static testing (K1)    58
6.1.4 Tool support for test specification (K1)    59
6.1.5 Tool support for test execution and logging (K1)    59
6.1.6 Tool support for performance and monitoring (K1)    60
6.1.7 Tool support for specific application areas (K1)    60
6.1.8 Tool support using other tools (K1)    60
6.2 Effective use of tools: potential benefits and risks (K2)    61
6.2.1 Potential benefits and risks of tool support for testing (for all tools) (K2)    61
6.2.2 Special considerations for some types of tool (K1)    61
6.3 Introducing a tool into an organization (K1)    63
7. REFERENCES    64
APPENDIX A SYLLABUS BACKGROUND    66
APPENDIX B LEARNING OBJECTIVES/LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE    68
APPENDIX C RULES APPLIED TO THE ISTQB FOUNDATION SYLLABUS    69
APPENDIX D NOTICE TO TRAINING PROVIDERS    71
INDEX    72

 
GIAI 휂沼똀N I : Nh沼칗g nguy챗n t梳칌 c퉤 b梳즢 c沼쬪 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra   
B횪i 1: Gi沼쌻 thi沼뇎 v沼 kh창u hu梳쩸 luy沼뇆
         Nh沼칗g tr튼沼쓓g h沼즤 khi梳퓅 khuy梳퓍 (l沼뾦 r沼뇈)
         C찼i gi찼 c沼쬪 khi梳퓅 khuy梳퓍
         T梳죍 sao ki沼긩 tra l梳죍 c梳쬷 thi梳퓍?
         Thu h沼밿 l梳죍 v沼몁 휃梳쬾 t튼
         Ki沼긩 tra bao nhi챗u l횪 휃沼
B횪i 2: T梳죍 sao c梳쬷 thi梳퓍 ph梳즜 ki沼긩 tra         
         Nh沼칗g nhi沼뇅 v沼 ch챠nh c沼쬪 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         Nh沼칗g m沼쩭 ti챗u c沼쬪 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
B횪i 3: Nh沼칗g nguy챗n t梳칌 ki沼긩 tra t沼븂g qu찼t
         Ki沼긩 tra cho th梳쪅 s沼 hi沼뇆 di沼뇆 c沼쬪 khi梳퓅 khuy梳퓍
         S沼 ki沼긩 tra m沼뛦 th沼 l횪 kh척ng th沼
         Ki沼긩 tra s沼쌿          
B횪i 4: Kh챠a c梳죒h t창m l첵 h沼뛠 c沼쬪 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         Nh沼칗g nhi沼뇅 v沼 c沼쬪 vi沼놻 l梳춑 ki沼긩 tra
         Nh沼칗g nhi沼뇅 v沼 c沼쬪 vi沼놻 l梳춑 ki沼긩 so찼t
         Ph창n t챠ch v횪 thi梳퓍 k梳 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         S沼 th沼켧 hi沼뇆 v횪 thi h횪nh vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         휂찼nh gi찼 c찼c ti챗u chu梳쯰 휃梳쬾 ra v횪 vi沼놻 b찼o c찼o
         C찼c 휃沼셬g t찼c k梳퓍 th첬c vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
     
GIAI 휂沼똀N II : Vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra v챵ng 휃沼쓎 c沼쬪 ph梳쬷 m沼걅
B횪i 1: Nh沼칗g ki沼긳 m梳쳕 ph찼t tri沼긪 ph梳쬷 m沼걅   
         Ki沼긳 ch沼 V
         Ki沼긳 th찼c n튼沼쌵
         Ki沼긳 v챵ng 휃沼쓎 ph찼t tri沼긪 휃沼뱊g qui
         Ki沼긳 v챵ng 휃沼쓎 xo梳칗 沼멵
         Nh沼칗g ki沼긳 lai
B횪i 2: C찼c m沼쯢 휃沼 ki沼긩 tra       
         Ki沼긩 tra b沼 ph梳춏, ki沼긩 tra 휃퉤n v沼,
         Ki沼긩 tra t沼 h沼즤
         Ki沼긩 tra h沼 th沼몁g
         Ki沼긩 tra s沼 ch梳쩺 nh梳춏
         Ki沼긩 tra s沼 ch梳쩺 nh梳춏 h沼즤 휃沼뱊g, 휃i沼걏 l沼
B횪i 3: C찼c ki沼긳 ki沼긩 tra (M沼쩭 휃챠ch ki沼긩 tra)
         Ki沼긩 tra v沼 ch沼쯢 n훱ng
         Ki沼긩 tra v沼 휃梳톍 휃i沼긩 s梳즢 xu梳쩿 c沼쬪 ph梳쬷 m沼걅
         Ki沼긩 tra v沼 c梳쪀 tr첬c/ ki沼긳 ki梳퓆 tr첬c c沼쬪 ph梳쬷 m沼걅
         Ki沼긳 li챗n quan 휃梳퓆 nh沼칗g thay 휃沼뷼 (x찼c nh梳춏)
         Ki沼긩 tra li챗n quan 휃梳퓆 nh沼칗g thay 휃沼뷼 (ki沼긩 tra h沼밿 qui)
B횪i 4: S沼 duy tr챙 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra  
 
GIAI 휂沼똀N III : C찼c bi沼뇆 ph찼p k沼 thu梳춗 t칫nh
B횪i 1: S沼 xem x챕t l梳죍 v횪 qu찼 tr챙nh ki沼긩 tra
         M沼쩭 ti챗u xem x챕t
         L沼즜 챠ch c沼쬪 vi沼놻 xem x챕t
B횪i 2: Qu찼 tr챙nh xem x챕t l梳죍      
         Qu찼 tr챙nh xem x챕t t沼븂g h沼즤
         Nh沼칗g ki沼긳 xem x챕t b沼웙 qu찼 tr챙nh
         Nh沼칗g ki沼긳 xem x챕t b沼웙 m沼쩭 휃챠ch
         Xem x챕t kh척ng h챙nh th沼쯢
B횪i 3: Di沼꿳 t梳춑              
         Nh沼칗g xem x챕t 휃沼뱊g 휃梳쿻g
         S沼 thanh tra
         Qu찼 tr챙nh thanh tra
         Truy xu梳쩿 t沼 nh沼칗g s沼 xem x챕t
         Xem x챕t mang t챠nh k沼 thu梳춗
         Xem x챕t c찼c nhu c梳쬾
         Xem x챕t v沼 thi梳퓍 k梳
         Xem x챕t v沼 m찾 s沼
         Nh沼칗g nh창n t沼 th횪nh c척ng cho s沼 xem x챕t
B횪i 4: Ph창n t챠ch t칫nh b梳켷g c찼c c척ng c沼  
         C찼c c척ng c沼 h沼뾫 tr沼 ph梳쬷 m沼걅
         Quy 튼沼쌵 ho梳톍 ti챗u chu梳쯰 m찾 h처a
 
GIAI 휂沼똀N IV : 휂i沼걏 ki沼뇆 ki沼긩 tra
B횪i 1: Nh沼칗g 휃i沼걏 ki沼뇆 휃沼 ki沼긩 tra v횪 nh沼칗g tr튼沼쓓g h沼즤 ki沼긩 tra 휃튼沼즓 thi梳퓍 k梳
         M沼쯢 휃沼 c沼쬪 th沼 t沼쩭 t첫y thu沼셛 v횪o t沼 ch沼쯢, r챠nh k沼 n훱ng, qu찼 tr챙nh ph찼t tri沼긪, th沼쓎 gian, nh沼칗g ng튼沼쓎 c처 li챗n quan
B횪i 2: Nh沼칗g ch沼쬷g l沼뛞i k沼 thu梳춗 thi梳퓍 k梳 s沼 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c k沼 thu梳춗 d沼켥 tr챗n 휃梳톍 휃i沼긩 k沼 thu梳춗
         C찼c k沼 thu梳춗 d沼켥 tr챗n c梳쪀 tr첬c
         C찼c k沼 thu梳춗 d沼켥 tr챗n c梳쪀 tr첬c
         C찼c k沼 thu梳춗 d沼켥 tr챗n c梳쪀 tr첬c ho梳톍 k沼 thu梳춗 h沼셮 휃en
B횪i 3: C찼c k沼 thu梳춗 d沼켥 tr챗n c梳쪀 tr첬c ho梳톍 k沼 thu梳춗 h沼셮 tr梳칗g
         Ki沼긩 tra s沼 tr챙nh b횪y v횪 휃沼 che ph沼 c沼쬪 s沼 tr챙nh b횪y
         Ki沼긩 tra quy梳퓍 휃沼땙h v횪 휃沼 che ph沼 c沼쬪 quy梳퓍 휃沼땙h
         Ki沼긩 tra d챵ng ki沼긩 so찼t
         Nh沼칗g k沼 thu梳춗 d沼켥 tr챗n c梳쪀 tr첬c kh찼c
         Ki沼긩 tra k沼땉h b梳즢
o       K梳 h沼뛞ch ki沼긩 tra
o       휂梳톍 휃i沼긩 k沼 thu梳춗 c沼쬪 vi沼놻 thi梳퓍 k梳 s沼 ki沼긩 tra
o       휂梳톍 휃i沼긩 k沼 thu梳춗 c沼쬪 tr튼沼쓓g h沼즤 ki沼긩 tra
o       B찼o c찼o nh沼칗g r梳칌 r沼멼 휃沼셳 xu梳쩿 khi ki沼긩 tra
o       B찼o c찼o t沼븂g k梳퓍 s沼 ki沼긩 tra
B횪i 4: C찼c k沼 thu梳춗 d沼켥 tr챗n kinh nghi沼뇅
         S沼 ki沼긩 tra mang t챠nh th훱m d챵
         휂o찼n t챙m l沼뾦
         L沼켥 ch沼뛫 c찼c k沼 thu梳춗
 
GIAI 휂沼똀N V : S沼 qu梳즢 l첵 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
B횪i 1: T沼 ch沼쯢 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         C梳쪀 tr첬c 휃沼셢
         T沼 ch沼쯢 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra c첫ng v沼쌻 kh찼ch h횪ng
         C찼c nhi沼뇅 v沼 c沼쬪 ng튼沼쓎 l찾nh 휃梳죓 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c nhi沼뇅 v沼 c沼쬪 ng튼沼쓎 ki沼긩 tra  
         C찼c vai tr챵 v횪 tr찼ch nhi沼뇅
B횪i 2: K梳 ho梳죅h v횪 휃찼nh gi찼 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra         
         C찼c ti沼긳 chu梳쯰 ra
         S沼 휃찼nh gi찼 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         Nh沼칗g s沼 ti梳퓈 c梳춏 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
o       Ch沼뛫 l沼켥 nh沼칗g s沼 ti梳퓈 c梳춏 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         S沼 ki沼긩 휃沼땙h v횪 ki沼긩 so찼t qu찼 tr챙nh ki沼긩 tra
o       S沼 ki沼긩 휃沼땙h qu찼 tr챙nh ki沼긩 tra
o       S沼 ki沼긩 so찼t vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
B횪i 3: Qu梳즢 l첵 c梳쪀 h챙nh
         CM(Configuration Management- Qu梳즢 l첵 c梳쪀 h챙nh)- Why ?
         C梳쪀 tr첬c t챠nh ph창n phi챗n b梳즢
         C찼c c척ng c沼 c沼쬪 CM
         R沼쬲 ro v횪 s沼 ki沼긩 tra
B횪i 4: Qu梳즢 l첵 s沼 c沼
         Bi沼긳 휃沼 t챙nh tr梳죒g khi梳퓅 khuy梳퓍
         Ph창n lo梳죍 khi梳퓅 khuy梳퓍
         Ph창n b沼 m梳춗 휃沼 튼u ti챗n c沼쬪 khi梳퓅 khuy梳퓍
 
GIAI 휂沼똀N VI : C척ng c沼 h沼 tr沼 cho vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
B횪i 1: C찼c ki沼긳 c척ng c沼 ki沼긩 tra
         Ph창n lo梳죍 c척ng c沼 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c c척ng c沼 qu梳즢 l첵 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c c척ng c沼 qu梳즢 l첵 s沼 c沼
         C찼c c척ng c沼 qu梳즢 l첵 c梳쪀 h챙nh
         C찼c c척ng c沼 h沼 tr沼 qu찼 tr챙nh xem x챕t
         C찼c c척ng c沼 thi梳퓍 k梳 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c c척ng c沼 chu梳쯰 b沼 d沼 li沼뇎 cho vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c c척ng c沼 thi h횪nh vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c c척ng c沼 trang b沼 lao 휃沼셬g/ M梳죒g ki沼긩 tra 휃퉤n v沼 c沼쬪 vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra
         M찼y so m梳쳕 trong ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c c척ng c沼 휃o l튼沼쓓g 휃沼 che ph沼
         C찼c c척ng c沼 b梳즣 m梳춗
         T梳죍 sao l梳죍 t沼 휃沼셬g h처a vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra (C척ng c沼 IBM)
 
B횪i 2: S沼 d沼쩸g c척ng c沼 m沼셳 c찼ch c처 hi沼뇎 qu梳    
         Nh沼칗g l沼즜 챠ch v횪 r沼쬲 ra ti沼걅 t횪ng c沼쬪 s沼 h沼 tr沼 c척ng c沼
         Nh沼칗g s沼 quan t창m 휃梳톍 bi沼뇍 휃梳퓆 m沼셳 v횪i c척ng c沼
B횪i 3: So s찼nh c척ng c沼 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c c척ng c沼 t沼 휃沼셬g h처a vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra C찼c ki沼긳 ki沼긩 tra
         C찼c c척ng c沼 t沼 휃沼셬g h처a vi沼놻 ki沼긩 tra Ph튼퉤ng ph찼p ki沼긩 tra ghi 창m v횪 ph찼t l梳죍.
B횪i 4: Gi沼쌻 thi沼뇎 m沼셳 c척ng c沼 v沼쌻 m沼셳 t沼 ch沼쯢
         Bi沼긳 휃沼 c沼쬪 m沼쯢 휃沼 h횪i l챵ng theo th沼쓎 gian




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